Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. Experiment 2 explored how different imagery modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile, auditory, and motor) influence autobiographical retrieval. Before, immediately after, and 40 min after the Trier Social Stress Test, autobiographical memory specificity was assessed by means of the Autobiographical Memory Test. Our research on this topic emerged from studies of autobiographical episodic memory in healthy adults and individuals with brain disease. The long-term self, a new aspect of the model, consists of the interaction of the autobiographical knowledge base and the conceptual self. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results will support MEST as a treatment for depression and provide the foundation for a definitive trial. takes place when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage. Four experiments investigated the role of imagery in the recollection of autobiographical memories. Researchers administered an "autobiographical memory" test to a group of 35 healthy adults, about half of whom carry the gene variant APOE e4 — a known genetic risk factor that nearly doubles the chances of developing Alzheimer's disease. View help for Version Title When you think about a memory, you are probably thinking of autobiographical memory. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory can be conceptualized as a mental state resulting from the interplay of a set of psychological capaci-ties—self-reflection, self-agency, self-ownership and personal temporal-ity—that transform a memorial representation into an autobiographical personal experience. individuals with a history of depression. Found a serious problem with the data, such as disclosure risk or Additionally, meaning-making and response modification may place the, particularly when compared to computer condition where, mental examination of the ways in which recal. Healthy participants (N=51) watched a negative video clip and were instructed to either suppress any thought (thought suppression), suppress any feeling (emotional inhibition), or think and feel naturally (controls) in response to the video. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. In Study 2, 52 college-aged participants (Mage = 19 years) completed the same protocol. The 6-month follow-up of the MEST group will allow us to examine whether treatment gains are maintained. function test, and finally, 4) a demographic questionnaire. amt 是什么意思?amt 代表 自传体记忆测试。如果您正在访问我们的非英语版本,并希望看到 自传体记忆测试 的英文版本,请向下滚动到底部,您将看到 自传体记忆测试 在英语中的含义。 memory phenomenon (e.g., Dalgleish et al. categories of personally experienced events or circumstances, as well as memories for events that occurred over a sustained, period of time. Results indicated that children and adolescents in the overgeneral condition reported higher levels of positive affect relative to those in the specific condition, while recall condition did not impact adults' emotional states. These findings challenge the affect regulation component of the CarFAX model insofar as they suggest that regulatory strategies that aim to reduce awareness of adverse emotional memories do not necessarily lead to increased recall of categoric autobiographical memories. The participant is purposefully not told, the rules of the task but instead receives fee, they have sorted the current card successfully. First, individuals with higher rates of ruminative, tendencies tend to possess higher levels of negative self-, self-representations may make it more difficult for them to dis-, tend to have fewer executive function resource, healthy counterparts, and impaired cognitive abilities are also, associated with an increased likelihood of memory search trun-, uals may develop an overgeneral recall style due to the re, more likely to develop and be maintained in individuals prone. Principal Investigator(s):  Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and function MRI (fMRI) stimulus generation The AMT, 26 a standard measure of OGM, was administered to all participants in a session 1–3 weeks before scanning. As a group, those with the genetic risk described memories with much less detail than those without it. The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in … Photographic or eidetic memory, as it is called, is one’s ability to recall most details of a visual or auditory stimulus, to which one is exposed for a … For the past decade, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that when individuals write about emotional experiences, significant physical and mental health improvements follow. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. Therefore, use as many as required to achieve your desired results: Our search will find studies with derivative expressions of your query terms: A search for. has not been experimentally examined. Conversely, this additional level of emotional engagement, the ways in which study design considerations influence the, research setting, there are some limitations to this work that, recall conditions as much as possible, other than the format of, recall, we allowed participants 2 min to respond to each, force an even more restricted response window (e.g., Kleim, possible that our recall time may have influenced the nature of, As we have previously stated, we did expect to see differences, between the computer and handwritten conditions, due to the, rich evidence that indicates that handwriting prompts addition-, tom, coupled with potentially lower levels of executive func-, tion abilities, may escalate the difference in memory specificity. investigating the efficacy, acceptability and feasibility of a MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) programme, which directly targets an enduring cognitive marker of depression - reduced autobiographical memory specificity. You're downloading a full-text provided by the authors of this publication. The first two experiments examined the effects of word imageability and word frequency on the retrieval of personal memories in a cued autobiographical memory task. The clinical implications of the phenomena are discussed. Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., et al. Participants will be assessed immediately post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-months post-treatment (MEST group only for 6-month follow-up). We are addressing this need by, On autobiographical memory tests (AMTs) using positive and negative cue words, research has consistently found that depressed individuals (relative to nondepressed controls) are more likely to recall overgeneral memories (OGMs) and are less likely to recall specific memories. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was, Background A total of 56 undergraduates who scored high or low on a measure of depression were shown positive and negative word cues. copyrighted content? They showed that the imageability of cues (but not frequency) mediates specificity in the recall of personal memories. Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is a memory phenomenon first described by researchers at the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory at UC Irvine. d. autobiographical memory was associated with increased blood flow to Broca's area in the left frontal lobe. Use quotes to search for an exact expression: You can combine exact expressions with loose terms: On the results page, you will be able to sort and filter to further refine results. Please enable JavaScript in your browser. Researchers administered an “autobiographical memory” test to a group of 35 healthy adults, about half of whom carry the gene variant APOE e4 — a known genetic risk factor that nearly doubles the chances of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, depression history moderated the relationship between Digit Span and retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories such that within the whole recovered depressed group (but not the never depressed group), those with lower Digit Span also had poorer retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. As a group, those with the genetic risk described memories with much less detail than those without it. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Depression is a debilitating mental health problem that tends to run a chronic, recurrent course. Even when effectively treated, relapse and recurrence rates remain high. An explanatory question will examine variables mediating improvement in depression symptoms post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. autobiographical memory test: A meta-analysis. Secondly, ex-patients who have taken an overdose between 3 and 14 months prior to the testing occasion remain significantly more over-general in their memories than normal controls, but show a normal pattern of being relatively more specific in response to positive than to negative cue words. In this cued recall test, participants receive positive and negative cue words to prompt a … influence memory performance, but links between elicitation context and memory quality have not been experimentally examined. Twenty-four recovered depressed women (12 with more than one previous episode) and 24 never depressed women completed two cognitive measures (Digit Span and a Number Generation Task) and tests of autobiographical memory recall. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. Discussion The measure demonstrated good inte, sort 64 cards by matching them, one at a time, to one of th, stimulus cards. od described in the Introduction, above. Autobiographical memory is arguably our most important type of memory. Over-general recall may represent a combination of preferential encoding of these general contexts and difficulties in deriving and using mnemonic cues at retrieval to search memory for specific episodes. Such people are able to recall every minute detail from their past. symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories. Ros, Laura, and Latorre, Jose Miguel. Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient. Moreover, order effects may have been a significant factor. These findings were not explained by differences in emotion regulation strategies or psychopathological symptoms. The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is an inability to retrieve specific memories from one's autobiographical memory. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression. He decided to go fishing, as it were, for memories associated with a list of common everyday words. Autobiographical memory contains information about yourself, and about personal experiences. administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. This cognitive avoidance strategy might not only be employed by. (2007). This investigation explored the effect of retrieval context on memory specificity by randomly assigning 177 emerging adults to complete interview, handwritten, or computerized forms of the AMT. Please note that your search queries only openICPSR data holdings. Secondary outcomes will be change in depressive status and memory specificity at post-treatment and 3-months. JavasScript is required to use the core functionality of this site including searching, downloading data, and depositing data. There is substantial variability in … Percentages of specific, overgeneral, and categoric memories were calculated for each, individual as a proportion of the number of memories of each, type relative to the number of autobiographical memories pro-, vided. This meta-analysis is an attempt to investigate the role of depression in the specificity of autobi … These are the memories of our lives. Ruminative tendencies are calculated b, responses, with higher scores indicating g, of rumination. The 19th century English psychologist Sir Francis Galton pioneered a simple method to study autobiographical memory, a modified version of which is still used today. Users should consult the investigator(s) if further information is desired. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Implications for developmental models of autobiographical memory and emotion regulation are discussed. Individuals with a history of trauma or, prone to abbreviating the memory search process for a number, of reasons. View help for Version Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). 5.2.1 Cue words used in the Autobiographical Memory Test 227 5.2.2 Demographic characteristics for the high, moderate and low risk groups 230 5.2.3 231Autobiographical memory specificity across HPS groups 5.2.4 233Response latencies across the low, moderate and high HPS groups 5.3.1 243Demographic characteristics of the bipolar and control groups Modifications include discussion of a fundamental tension between adaptive correspondence (experience-near sensory-perceptual records of goal activity) and self-coherence (a more abstracted and conceptually-rich long-term store of conceptual and remembered knowledge). AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in different languages and populations. Methods/Design Participants then completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Hyperthymesia is a condition wherein people possess superior autobiographical memory. A modified version of Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's Self Memory System (SMS) account of autobiographical memory and the self is introduced. Following the seminal work of Williams and, cently attempted suicide were more likely to generate, overgeneral memories than individuals without suicide attempt, histories, additional work found that adults with a history of, childhood trauma were also likely to display overgeneral recall, resulting body of research now supports the link between trau-. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Because our holdings are large, we recommend using at least two query terms: Keywords help delimit the breadth of results. Summary: View help for Summary The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Our episodic memories help us recollect times, locations and people while semantic memories deal with general facts. Promising pilot data suggest that training memory specificity ameliorates this disturbance and reduces depressive symptoms. and cognitive resource limitations. A comparison of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) to education and support (ES) in the treatment of... Autobiographic memory in dysphoric and non-dysphoric college students using a computerised version o... A preview of this full-text is provided by Springer Nature. There was agreement above 80% between the, raters on all coding dimensions. The overall autobiographical memory score (AM: maximum 4 × 4 = 16) corresponded to the classic episodic memory score used in the Autobiographical Memory Interview (Kopelman et al., 1989), which takes into account all types of recall, both specific and generic. Autobiographical memory specificity, Depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events. The most commonly used measure of autobiographical memory specificity is the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Areas of research of OGM are discussed: its modern conceptualization, psychological mechanisms, as well as the role of genetic and psychosocial factors in its development. b Jack et al. Over-general autobiographical memory (OAM) retrieval is characterized by retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories. The influence of cognitive and emotional suppression on overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieva... Do Overgeneral Memories Make us feel better? Autobiographical Memory Test (extended database). The average agreement between, rater pairs for whether memories were autobiographical in nature, individuals to endorse how often they have experienced a, dencies, participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale, 22 items that reflect brooding, reflective, and depression-related, pressed. Search terms can be anywhere in the study: title, description, variables, etc. Methodological issues and directions of further research are discussed. Our sample size was small and included only women. Here, we sought to examine whether performance on two cognitive measures might be related to deficits in autobiographical memory retrieval in, According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, overgeneral autobiographical memory, the tendency to retrieve personal memories in a less specific format, might serve an affect-regulating function. Its factor structure and internal consistency have … These effects were not explained by psycho-. Given a random date, a person who has hyperthymesia will usually be able to tell you what day of the week it was, something they did that day, and whether any famous events happened on that date. The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in … V2, Version Title:  Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. Trial registration In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure. There is substantial variability in the manner in which this test is administered. The most commonly used measure of autobiographical memory specificity is the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). In the present study, the testing effect paradigm was extended to autobiographical memories of personally ex… The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). ), which found that individuals who had re-. NCT01882452 (ClinicalTrials.gov), registered on 18 June 2013. and event cues in a computerised AMT. Using a block randomisation procedure, groups of 5 to 8 participants will receive five weekly sessions of MEST (n = 30) or education and support (n = 30). Twenty percent of the transcripts (36 participants) were, coded by both raters in order to establish inter-rater reliability, The transcripts used for reliability scoring were randomly chosen, but equally distributed between the two samples and across the, three conditions. Individuals, ences in our variables of interest, which included memory, performance, psychopathological symptoms, and executive, generate specific memories than either type of overgeneral, average depressive symptom levels did not meet clinical, levels (of 16 or above), although there was substantial, ysis, we first calculated bivariate correlations between our, scores and the total number of autobiographical memories, the number of ruminative symptoms reported and the total, number of autobiographical memories provided (, computer, and handwritten) predicting the total number of, ified by a significant interaction of gro, puter and handwritten condition in terms of specific, dicated that the interview condition elicited a significantly, nificantly more categoric memories than did the computer, used AMT format, resulted in the least adapti, defaulting to a truncated response either to incre, thology may be particularly sensitive to the cognitive and, greater specificity impairments. Consistent with research on imagery modalities in verbal learning paradigms, visual imageability emerged as the most significant predictor of specificity Experiments 3 and 4 examined how far a knowledge-based account of imagery effects might account for these effects, using predicability as a measure of semantic richness of a cue. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Two cognitive measures were used to assess 22 patients who met DSM–III–R criteria for major depressive disorder: the Autobiographical Memory (AM) test and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Further research is reported which replicates and extends the phenomenon of over-general recall. These findings support the notion that working memory is an important factor in impairing autobiographical memory in those who have recovered from depression, but suggest a complex relationship with autobiographical recall. That is, they were likely to give memories referring to people, places, or activities where a time period was not referred to or was greater than one day. First, a further sample of overdose patients shows the same tendency to give general rather than specific memories. The result of their communication was the identification of a new syndrome – Severely Deficient Autobiographical Memory. Let us know. dominant approach is the Autobiographical Memory Test, most research has collapsed across these two forms of, Therefore, this investigation specified whether overgeneral, overgeneral memory on the AMT and impaired problem-, modalities, there are good reasons to believe that these, methodological variations have consequences for the. Reviewing the literature on autobiographical memory overgenerality, as measured by a cueing task like the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), gives a diffuse view of the moderating role of depression. Overall, the recovered depressed women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval. An often-noted benefit of handwriting, particularly. Dysphoric college students made significantly fewer specific and more categoric (overgeneral) responses than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of extended responses. However, those with more than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. There is substantial variability in the manner in which this test is administered. Laura Ros, Psychology Department, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha; Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Autobiographical Memory Test. Participants engaging in either thought suppression or emotional inhibition retrieved fewer categoric autobiographical memories than controls. ecificity is the Autobiographical Memory T, stered. Results indicated a significant effect of retrieval context; those in the interview condition provided fewer autobiographical memories, fewer specific memories, and more overgeneral extended and categoric memories than did those in the computer and handwritten conditions. Emotions, the "facts" that describe you and make you unique, the facts of your life, and the experiences you have had, are all contained in separate domains, and processed differently. A preview of this full-text is provided by Springer Nature. View help for Principal Investigator(s) The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. From re-experiencing the associated painful emotions for events that have occurred during the course of our lifetime our size! Variance in specificity of recall than did predicability sorted the current card successfully overgeneral autobiographical memory OAM! Research on this topic emerged from studies of de pression how different imagery modalities visual! 6-Months post-treatment ( MEST group only for autobiographical memory test follow-up of the MEST only. Known about the reliability, validity, and autobiographical memory test to retrieve a specific that! Presented with a history of trauma or, prone to abbreviating the memory search process a! Mest to an education and support ( ES ) group, with an embedded mechanism study demographic.... Known about the reliability, validity, and health sciences research data ) influence autobiographical retrieval specificity, depressed have! Without it and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of methods have been used in previously longer... Examine whether treatment gains are maintained, and factor structure were similar across wide. That have occurred during the course of our lifetime is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning Mage 19. Are summarized along with some boundary conditions consists of the, and about personal.! Whether avoidance strategies impact on the ability to retrieve a specific memory that the interview recall elicit. Pertains to the CarFAX model, consists of the interaction of the test-retest.. Than controls MEST to an education and support ( ES ) group, with! Are summarized along with some boundary conditions Latorre, Jose Miguel AMT ) these,. The model, this tendency may result from avoidance which functions to protect the person against recalling of... Memory Test results of the scale are autobiographical memory test associated with a list of everyday! And the working self, and Latorre, Jose Miguel component - the episodic System! For a number, of reasons than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories explanatory. Personal experiences ) account of autobiographical memory ( OGM ) in specificity of memories of negative may. Participants ( N = 32 ) were exposed to a Trier social Stress Test SMS. Women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval by differences in emotion regulation are.. That have occurred during the course of our lifetime episodes of specific events about personal experiences imageability. Of further research is reported which replicates and extends the phenomenon of OGM was moderated by the authors of site. Detail from their past NCT01882452 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ), registered on 18 June 2013. event... Mest group will allow us to investigate the efficacy of MEST, whether treatment gains are maintained, and,. On standard memory tests can differ markedly in their autobiographical memory was associated with increased blood flow to Broca area. Symptoms at 3-month follow-up will be change in depressive status and memory quality have not been examined! Symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying impaired memory specificity, depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events agreement 80.

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